It may seem like something from a sci-fi movie, but the concept of vehicles that drive themselves is closer than you think. Many companies, including Tesla, Mercedes, BMW and even Apple are actively working on autonomous car technology. However, while completely driverless vehicles are not yet commonplace on our roads, more and more models are incorporating technology to help the driving process. This technology, known as Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), is not designed to replace a driver, but to help the driver respond to potentially dangerous situations.
ADAS use ultrasonic, radar, laser, camera, thermal and infrared sensors to monitor the outside of a vehicle. Onboard computers use the information to take action, which could be as simple as illuminating a warning light when a car enters a driver’s blind spot. More complex systems take control of the vehicle, such as applying the brakes and/or steering to avoid a collision.
The potential for ADAS to save lives is huge. Human error causes the vast majority of the 2.4 million injuries and 35,000 deaths from traffic crashes every year. Research shows fewer claims for vehicles with ADAS vs. identical vehicles without the technology, demonstrating the systems are working to prevent or reduce the severity of crashes. Putting a dent in those numbers would have a huge effect.
However, a new study from the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety found that most drivers don’t fully understand how ADAS works, and tend to over-rely on the systems. “As good as these systems have become, they’re not a substitute for a fully engaged driver,” says John Paul, AAA’s Car Doctor. “When you’re behind the wheel, your primary responsibility is to drive.”
AAA recommends consumers get more education about ADAS at the point of sale (from the dealer), as they expect ADAS to be incorporated as standard equipment in most new car models, paving the way for fully autonomous vehicles in (perhaps) the not-too-distant future!
For years, hybrid vehicles have used stop-start technology to improve fuel efficiency. This means the engine shuts down when the vehicle is at a complete stop – such as in traffic or at a stop light. The car’s accessories, such as lights, wipers, audio and climate control, keep operating as usual. As soon as the driver releases the brakes, the engine restarts automatically. It takes some getting used to, but the intention is to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. More and more, this stop-start technology is now appearing on conventional gasoline engine vehicles as well.
Depending on the price of gas and individual driving conditions, annual fuel cost savings are estimated at around $167 – more than 12,000 miles per year in a vehicle that averages 20 mpg. Stop-start systems, which add about $300 to the traditional vehicle powertrain, can pay for themselves in just two years. However, there is one big trade-off.
A stop-start system requires a special, high-capacity battery, which can cost twice as much as a traditional battery. When the engine shuts off in a stop-start system, the battery must assume the load for all the electrical needs, including charging ports, navigation and infotainment systems, lights, climate control and more. And, an engine that experiences frequent start-ups (potentially hundreds per day) requires extra battery capability.
Stop-start technology is growing fast, and most manufacturers have indicated this technology will be standard equipment on models over the next few years. John Paul, AAA’s Car Doctor, has road tested more than 1,000 new vehicles, and noticed an improvement in the technology. “Stop-start systems are much more refined and less obtrusive in day-to-day driving,” he says. “I recently drove a 2018 Dodge RAM truck and barely noticed the restart after being stopped at a traffic light. While it may take some drivers a little time to get used to, everyone should expect this technology on their next new vehicle.”
AAA’s annual analysis of the actual costs of owning an automobile showed that the largest expense is something most drivers fail to consider: depreciation. In fact, depreciation accounts for almost 40% of the cost of owning a new vehicle – more than $3,000 per year. This factor matters most for people who like to change their vehicles often. “Resale value should be an important consideration for owners who only plan to have the vehicle for a few years,” says John Paul, AAA Northeast’s Car Doctor. “The best way to minimize depreciation costs is simple: keep your car for a long time and keep it well-maintained.”
Overall, AAA’s study found the average cost to own and operate a new vehicle in 2018 averages $8,849 per year. This incorporates the cost of fuel, maintenance, repairs, license/registration/taxes, depreciation and loan interest. Lower costs are associated with small sedans and hybrids, while large sedans and pickup trucks will cost slightly more.
With depreciation eating up so much of the cost, a gently used vehicle might be a wiser choice. Other considerations to lowering your driving costs are:
Fuel choices: avoid wasting money on premium grade gas unless your vehicle specifically requires it. Electric cars offer lower fuel and maintenance costs.
Regular maintenance: spending money of routine maintenance can save money in the end. Unexpected car repair bills soar on poorly maintained vehicles, which suffer more roadside breakdowns and unexpected mechanical failures.
Driving speed: when gas prices rise, small changes in your driving behavior can give you better mileage. Slowing to the speed limit, lightening your car’s load, driving during cooler parts of the day and maintaining proper tire pressure can save you gas money.
To read the study and download the report, click here.
New research from AAA reveals that worn tires can cause a deadly hazard for motorists in wet weather. Performance testing at various highway speeds revealed that average stopping distances are increased a staggering 43% - an additional 87 feet - for worn tires, compared to new.
The key difference is traction. Tire treads literally connect a car to the road, and in wet conditions worn tires will completely lose contact and skid (or hydroplane). Current industry guidelines and state laws frequently recommend that drivers wait until tread depth reaches 2/32” to replace tires. Yet AAA’s study tested new tires against tires worn to 4/32”- higher than most recommendations - and found increased stopping distance, and a reduction in handling ability on wet pavement.
John Paul, senior manager for traffic safety at AAA Northeast, says drivers should look to replace their tires when the tread depth reaches 4/32” - when stopping distances have already begun to deteriorate. “Waiting longer can be hazardous,” he adds. “Today’s vehicles are built to go longer between routine maintenance checks, so drivers may not be alerted to the tread wear on their tires until it’s too late.”
A simple test is to slip an upside-down quarter between tire grooves - on the outside, in the middle, and on the inside of the tire. If you can see all of Washington’s head on the quarter, you need to start shopping for tires.
For the complete report, please click here.
If Dorothy oiled the Tin Man with synthetic oil, he probably wouldn’t have rusted on the way to the Emerald City. That’s because new research by AAA Automotive Engineering on engine oil quality revealed synthetic oil outperformed conventional oil by an average of nearly 50%. What does this mean for members? For only about $5 more a month, synthetic oil will provide significantly better engine protection than conventional oil.
While consumers don’t generally want to spend additional money on synthetic oil changes (about $70 vs. $38 for a conventional oil change), the long-term benefits are worth considering.
“It’s understandable that drivers may be skeptical of any service that’s nearly twice the cost of the alternative,” said John Paul, senior manager for traffic safety at AAA Northeast. “But, while manufacturer-approved conventional oils won’t harm a vehicle’s engine, the extra $30 per oil change could actually save money in the long run by protecting critical engine components over time.”
The Car Doctor also points out, “If you are a DIYer, the difference in prices between conventional and synthetic make the switch to synthetic oil an easy decision.”
Synthetic oils have superior resistance to deterioration, and AAA’s research showed they would especially benefit newer vehicles with turbocharger engines and vehicles that tow heavy loads, operate in extreme temperatures, or are frequently driven in stop-and-go traffic.
While only a few vehicles require synthetic oil, Paul says all vehicles would benefit from making the switch. “Upgrading to synthetic oil is not merely a selling ploy by repair shops,” adds Paul. “More than 80% of service professionals use synthetic oil in their own personal vehicles because they know the value it has on the long-term health of the automobile.”
The study focused on eight industry-standard ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) tests that evaluated the quality of both synthetic and conventional engine oils in terms of shear stability, deposit formation, volatility, low-temperature pumpability, oxidation resistance and oxidation-induced rheological changes.
You may not be aware, but every time you use your vehicle’s navigation or touch screen audio systems, get a diagnostics report or maintenance reminder, or have your doors unlocked remotely by OnStar, you’re using telematics. Telematics is the use of wireless information to enable your car to interact with the outside world.
For the most part, telematics has made driving safer and more enjoyable with enhancements such as:
“Telematics is a growing sector in the automotive landscape,” says John Paul, senior manager for traffic safety at AAA Northeast. “It offers many benefits to drivers, such as convenience, comfort and safety. But the use of telematics brings concerns that many in the industry haven’t fully addressed yet.” Any information that can be scanned from a car’s computer system can be transmitted. This includes engine performance, vehicle location, even the driver’s weight. For example, telematics can monitor driving behavior. Some big insurance names use this information to offer discounts based on how you drive, when you drive and where you drive. This usage-based car insurance (UBI) provides more competitive auto insurance quotes if the technology deems you a “safe driver.” While this may be economical for most AAA members, several experts have raised concerns about potential discrimination, privacy issues and the potential for unfair surcharges.
Many new telematic features in vehicles, like infotainment options and touch screens, can be a distraction to drivers. A 2013 AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety study found that these types of vehicle interactions are among the most distracting for drivers, and a 2015 AAA study of teen drivers found distracting behavior a leading cause (58%) of all crashes.
“Automakers will have to work on ways to reduce the risks and minimize distractions for all drivers,” continues Paul. “And government officials, insurance companies and individual drivers will have to sort through the complicated issues that come with monitored driving behavior.”
Nearly nine out of 10 consumers agree that automakers should continue to improve the fuel efficiency for all vehicles, and believe that fuel economy is the area with the most room for improvement in their current vehicle.*
“There are many ways car companies can make their vehicles more fuel efficient,” says John Paul, senior manager for traffic safety at AAA Northeast. “Downsizing engines, improving aerodynamics, and selling more electric and fuel cell-powered vehicles are a few examples. But one of the biggest changes will be to reduce the weight.”
More and more, manufacturers are adopting aluminum alloys and other lightweight materials to shave pounds off their vehicles. In fact, the amount of aluminum used in cars is expected to increase significantly by 2025, according to a recent study published by the consulting and research firm Ducker Worldwide. Components are being retooled in lighter high-strength steel, aluminum, plastic and composites. Every pound counts; studies have shown that reducing vehicle weight by 10% can improve gas mileage by 6 to 8%.
The new BMW i3 electric car may be the poster child for light weighting. The compact four-seater weighs a svelte 2,635 pounds, despite carrying a 500-pound battery pack. This was accomplished by using a carbon fiber passenger compartment and aluminum subframes that carry the battery and powertrain.
Despite using some similar materials, you needn’t worry that modern vehicles will crumple like soda cans. Lightweight cars and trucks will still be safe thanks to high-strength metal alloys and high-tech composites such as carbon fiber. These materials can be just as strong as heavier materials, and with proper engineering, they are often even better at absorbing collision impact energy.
“Despite carrying higher sticker prices, lightweight vehicles will use less fuel over the life of the car, allowing consumers to recoup the higher costs,” states Paul.
Collision repair costs and insurance premiums may also go up due to special training and equipment needs, though some experts believe the difference will be minor since the portion of most insurance premiums devoted to collision repair is small. In the end, both consumers and the environment will benefit from lightweight vehicles. That’s a diet we can probably all agree on.
*Source: Consumers Union National Vehicle Fuel Economy Poll, June 2017.